ASUPAN ASAM FOLAT, VITAMIN B12 DAN VITAMIN C PADA IBU HAMIL DI INDONESIA BERDASARKAN STUDI DIET TOTAL

Eka Puspita Astriningrum, Hardinsyah Hardinsyah, Naufal Muharam Nurdin

Abstract


ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze intake of folic acid, B12 and C of pregnant women (PW) in Indonesia. This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional study, so called Total Diet Study conducted in year 2014. The food consumption data were collected using the 24-hour dietary recall method. Total subjects of this study were 606 PW aged 14-49 old. Data of dietary intake of  folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin C were analyzed using Indonesian food composition tables (FCT), nutrisurvey software, nutrition fact and FCT from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The results showed that mean intake of folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C were 167.2±145.5 µg/d, 3.5±5.3 µg/d, 61.3±75.8 mg/d, respectively. The prevalence of severely deficiency of folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C were 88.3%, 34.5% and 46.9% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the younger PW from middle and low economic status had higher risk for folic acid deficiency. PW with education level less than and equal to senior high school with middle and low economic status had higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. PW with education level less than and equal to senior high school had higher risk for vitamin C deficiency. Consumption of folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C of PW was low, so the consumption of vitamin sources was very important to prevent problems during pregnancy, such as anemia, premature, and also maternal and child mortality.

Keywords: folic acid, pregnant women, vitamin B12, vitamin C


ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis asupan asam folat, B12 dan C pada ibu hamil di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder Studi Diet Total 2014 dengan desain cross-sectional study. Data konsumsi pangan diperoleh dengan metode recall 24 jam. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 606 ibu hamil umur 14-49 tahun. Asupan asam folat, vitamin B12 dan vitamin C dianalisis menggunakan daftar komposisi pangan dari Tabel Komposisi Bahan Makanan, perangkat lunak nutrisurvey, informasi kandungan gizi dari produk kemasan berlabel dan Tabel Bahan Makanan Departemen Pertanian Amerika Serikat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rata-rata asupan vitamin asam folat, vitamin B12 dan vitamin C berturut-turut 152,4±98,7 µg/hari, 3,4±7,1 µg/hari dan 62,3±72,7 mg/hari. Prevalensi ibu hamil yang tergolong defisiensi tingkat berat adalah 88,3%, 34,5% dan 46,9%, masing-masing untuk asam folat, vitamin B12 dan C. Hasil analisis regresi logistik menunjukkan bahwa ibu hamil berumur lebih muda dengan status ekonomi menengah dan bawah lebih berisiko mengalami defisiensi asam folat. Ibu hamil dengan tingkat pendidikan ≤SLTA dengan status ekonomi menengah dan bawah lebih berisiko mengalami defisiensi B12. Defisiensi vitamin C lebih sering terjadi pada ibu hamil yang berpendidikan ≤SLTA. Konsumsi asam folat, vitamin B12 dan vitamin C pada ibu hamil tergolong masih rendah, sehingga konsumsi sumber vitamin perlu ditingkatkan untuk mencegah masalah selama kehamilan, seperti anemia, prematur, dan kematian ibu dan anak.

Kata kunci: asam folat, ibu hamil, vitamin B12, vitamin C


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2017.12.1.31-40

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