FAKTOR RISIKO KEJADIAN BERAT BADAN LAHIR RENDAH DI AREA PERTANIAN (STUDI DI KABUPATEN BREBES)

Diah Ratnasari, Suhartono Suhartono, Mohammad Zen Rahfiludin

Abstract


ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors of  Low Birth Weight (LBW) in agricultural area (Breses district) with high pesticide exposure. The research was an observational study with case control design. Study subject were post partum-productive age (20-35 years) women, consisting of 60 cases (LBW) and 60 controls (non-LBW). The independent variables were maternal weight gain during pregnancy, MUAC in early pregnancy, hemoglobin levels in the third trimester body mass index before pregancy and level of pesticides exposure. Nutrient intake data was obtained by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), maternal and child health (KIA) book and data on level of pesticide exposure was obtained through a structured interview. Data were analyzed by calculating the Odds Ratio (OR) using logistic regression. There was no differences in  age between cases and controls. Median length, mother’s education level, BMI and MUAC among the cases was lower than the control group. Low protein adequacy level (OR= 8.9; 95%CI:1.6-227.7); less weight gain (OR=9.1; 95%CI:2.9-28,); High pesticides exposure (OR=7.4;  95%CI:1.3-40.9); low MUAC <23.5 cm (OR=4.6; 95%CI:1.3-15.5) were LBW risk factors in Brebes. Inadequacy of nutritients and high pesticides exposure during pregnancy was LBW risk factors. Women are advised to increase nutrients intake and avoid  pesticides exposure during pregnant.

Keywords: low birth weight, risk factors, pesticides exposure

ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis faktor risiko kejadian Berat Badan Lahir Rendah (BBLR) di area pertanian (Kabupaten Breses) dengan paparan pestisida yang tinggi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional dengan desain case control. Subjek penelitian adalah ibu post partum berumur produktif (20-35 tahun), terdiri atas 60 kasus (BBLR) dan 60 kontrol (tidak BBLR). Variabel bebas yang diteliti adalah kenaikan berat badan ibu selama hamil, lingkar lengan atas (LiLA) pada awal kehamilan, kadar hemoglobin (Hb) trimester tiga, Indeks massa tubuh (IMT) sebelum hamil dan tingkat paparan pestisida. Data asupan zat gizi diperoleh dengan metode food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) semikuantitatif dan buku kesehatan ibu dan anak (KIA) subjek. Data tingkat paparan pestisida diperoleh melalui wawancara terstruktur. Data dianalisis dengan menghitung Odds Ratio (OR) menggunakan regresi logistik. Tidak terdapat perbedaan umur antara kelompok kasus dan kontrol. Median lama pendidikan, IMT dan LiLA ibu kelompok kasus lebih rendah dibandingkan kelompok kontrol. Tingkat kecukupan protein yang kurang (OR=18,9; 95%CI:1,6-227,7); kenaikan berat badan kurang (OR=9,1; 95%CI:2,9-28); tingkat paparan pestisida yang tinggi (OR=7,4; 95%CI:1,3-40,9); LiLA <23,5 cm (OR=4,6; 95%CI:1,3-15,5) merupakan faktor risiko BBLR di Kabupaten Brebes. Ketidakcukupan gizi dan paparan pestisida yang tinggi selama kehamilan merupakan faktor risiko BBLR. Ibu hamil disarankan untuk meningkatkan asupan gizi dan menghindari paparan pestisida.

Kata kunci: BBLR, faktor risiko, paparan pestisida

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2017.12.1.41-48

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